At the same time, evaluation of GIC in terms of their biocompatibility with neural tissue was being carried out. Method: An electronic search between 1987 and the end of 2017 was performed using PubMed, Web of Science and Google search engines with the terms glass-ionomer, glass polyalkenoate, antibacterial and antimicrobial as the key words. • Resin pre-impregnation of braided long fibers greatly enhanced the flexural strength. The major reason for RMGIC restoration failure was not recurrent caries but fracture and loss of retention. [Article in Portuguese] Authors E Zytkievitz, E Piazza. The GIC is also used for the cementation of fixed prostheses such as crown and bridges. 1973 Oct 2;135(7):322-6. Sadly, these warnings came too late to prevent four cases of post-otoneurosurgery aluminium encephalopathy, resulting in two deaths (Renard et al., 1994). Such expansions and contractions may break the marginal seal of an inlay or other tooth fillings, particularly if there is a large difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion between the tooth and the restorative material. Fluoride decreases glass’s melting temperature, lowers the refractive index of the glass giving rise to optically translucent cements, and most of all, has a caries-inhibitory role. Glass-ionomer cements (GICs) have been in clinical use for well over 30 years, mainly as direct restoratives in dentistry but also as bone cements in otorhinolaryngology. • Braided long fibers give higher flexural strength than discontinuous short fibers. However, there were a few negative outcomes. Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are extensively used in the dental field as luting cements, base cements, and as filling materials in low load-bearing dental restorations. It has been suggested that this is due to retention of glass-ionomer cement deep within the fissure and also because of the fluoride release into the enamel prior to the loss of the bulk cement . Table 24.1 Composition of glass ionomer cements. Studies have shown that glass ionomers inhibit demineralization of the surrounding tooth structures in vitro (Hicks et al., 1986) and in situ (ten Cate and van Duinen, 1995), and provide protection against recurrent caries under clinical conditions for patients with high caries risk (Tyas, 1991). Glass-ionomers are shown to set by an acid-base reaction within 2-3 min and to form hard, reasonably strong materials with acceptable appearance. Although seemingly biocompatible, clinical data reported that exposure to viscous GIC resulted in a potentially irreversible block in nerve conduction (Loescher et al., 1994a,b). Since this time, there have been numerous studies to compare the clinical effectiveness of glass-ionomer cements with that of composite resin sealants. The glass ionomer cement is a biocompatible dental material with very few adverse reactions. Qvist et al. Therefore, the glass ionomer cement produces only a short and mild pulpal inflammatory reaction. When Ca(OH)2 (CH, first group) and RMGI, vitrebond (VIT, second group) were evaluated as pulp capping materials for human pulp response, it was found that only CH enables pulp restoration and entire dentin bridging throughout the exposed pulp site. Glass-ionomer cements are popular materials as they display the following clinical advantages: 1. they are tooth-coloured 2. they bond chemically to tooth substance and non-precious metals without the need for additional adhesives 3. they release fluoride 4. their coefficient of thermal expansion is equivalent to that of tooth structure 5. they have good biocompatibility. P.V. 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